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At the end of the century Silesia became part of Poland and was ruled by the Piast dynasty; the land of the pagan Opolanie was conquered by Duke Mieszko I in 992.
From the 11th-12th centuries it was also a castellany.
In this time the castle was finally completed and new buildings, including the city walls and the Holy Cross Church, were constructed.
Along with most of Silesia, in 1327 the Duchy of Opole came under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Bohemia, itself part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Opole received German town law in 1254, which was expanded with Neumarkt law in 1327.
Opole developed during the rule of duke Bolko I of Opole.
In the early 13th century, Duke Casimir I of Opole decided to move the settlement from the Pasieka Island into the right shore of the Oder river (since the 17th century it is the old stream bed of Oder known as Młynówka).
Opole would become a duchy in 1172 and would share much in common with the Duchy of Racibórz, with which it was often combined.With the death of King Ludvík II of Bohemia at the Battle of Mohács, Silesia was inherited by Ferdinand I, placing Opole under the sovereignty of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria.The Habsburgs took control of the region in 1532 after the last Piast duke of Opole - Jan II the Good died.In 1281 Upper Silesia was divided further between the heirs of the dukes.The Duchy of Opole was temporarily reestablished in 1290.
The first railway connection between Opole, Brzeg and Wrocław was opened in 1843 and the first manufacturing plants were constructed in 1859, which greatly contributed to the city's regional significance.