Validating electronic source data in clinical trials Kannada live online sex chat
Phase I trials are even less expensive at nearly ,700 per patient.Amount of volunteer patients per phase is usually: 20 to 80 for Phase I, 20 to 300 for Phase II and 300 to 3000 for Phase III, which totals to roughly ,784,000 per average trial.Normal editing process involves a series of edit checks and queries.
Every stage involves certain data cleaning and validation procedures to ensure data consistency and accuracy (Table I). Most common errors include: typographical errors, copying errors, coding errors and range error .Pyle in his "Data Preparation for Data Mining" is refering to "outliers" as: "single, or very low frequency, occurrence of the value of a variable that is far away from the bulk of the values of the variable".In fact, determination of outliers depends on purpose of analysis.The Data Warehousing Institute (DWI) estimates the cost of bad or ‘dirty' data exceeds 0 billion annually.The actual cost of bad data may never be known, but it's safe to say the cost is significant enough to move up on your to-do list.
Handling missing data for data cleaning purposes must answer following questions:1. Procedures for dealing with missing data, e.g., use of estimated or derived data, should be described.